In 1723, in the Esccia, was born one of the most important economic thinkers who the world had notice? Adam Smith. Son of a typical family of middle class, since very early the figure of Smith characterized itself for its distraction and to the 16 years he was to study in Oxford, in England. It is considered the father of the modern Economy and the most important theoretician of economic liberalism. In full Industrial Revolution? 1776? it published a book that is considered the landmark of the Economic Theory? ' ' The Wealth of the Naes' ' , which served of theoretical base for the expansion of the industrial capitalism. In accordance with Adam Smith the auto-interest of a free society would provide the form fastest of a nation to reach the progress and the economic growth. In its liberal opinion the biggest obstacle to this economic progress would be the interventionism of the State in the Economy; therefore, for it, would exist one ' ' hand invisvel' ' that auto-it would regulate the market. That is, for Adam Smith if the market it was left in peace for governments it would always remain itself in balance. This it called of ' ' Laissez-Faire' '.
For it would fit to the State only three functions: (a) the establishment and the maintenance of justice; (b) the national defense; (c) the creation and the public maintenance of certain workmanships and institutions, which were not of private interest. It was radically against any restriction to the economic freedom that led to the monopoly of market. ECONOMY? Basic concepts the Economy studies the way for which the society distributes the limited resources of the Land for the insaciveis appetites of human beings e, in this scene, ' ' oferta' ' ' ' demanda' ' (it looks for) they are the operating forces. In what it is called ' ' point of equilbrio' ' , the market price allows that the offered amount is equal to the demanded amount.
Regarding the world-wide financial crisis and looking at how it affects Brazil: At the top of the list it is well capitalized a solid financial system and, without occult risks in rockings riddled of tricks, as it occurred in the United States. Test of this is that since 2008 no Brazilian bank of national covering it broke, with exception of the Pan-American. the weekly magazine of the April says: ‘ ‘ In according to place, Brazil still has in box more reserves in foreign currency of what the total of the external debt. With this recess, the Central banking has maneuver edge to brighten up traumatic fluctuations of the exchange in accordance with vendendo or buying dollar in the market the necessities of each moment. The good situation of the reserves leaves Brasilia in favorable conditions also to allow that investing foreigners remove its economies of the country changing its Reals for dollar, what he confers still more to Brazil credibility.
A country that does not hinder the dollar exit artificially is a country that attracts dollar with facilidade’ more; ‘. advances: ‘ ‘ The third point is the absence of ‘ ‘ bolhas’ ‘ in the economy. That is, even so if she can technical affirm that the property are with the irrealmente high prices in Brazil, this not yet configures a bubble, therefore they are not being financed for instruments of credit without ballast, as she occurred in the American market, opening way for the 2008 crisis. The room tranquilizador factor is the monetary politics of the Central banking that, having been sufficiently strict in last the ten years, accumulated credibility to act with the signal changed in case of the contraction to show the face. That is, the interests are in a high platform and to lower them can have effect stimulant in the economy, will be necessrio’ ‘.
In this year of 2011 complete Brazil 189 years of independence of Portugal having in this tried period good situations and many not so good. In these almost two hundred years the country passed of a peripheral nation and without no expression of the economic point of view, social politician and for a country that is ready to be one of the protagonists of the world-wide economy in the next years. It is a country that left of being agrarian to have an industry respected with the job of technologies of most advanced and with the sector of services representing two teros of the GIP and also using technologies and highly qualified hand of workmanship. But our people is living better in all the country? The respect to the people has been practised in our country? The morality in the management of the public resources has been practised systematically in all the country? Since the announcement of independence, Brazil offered improvement of life to its people, exactly having faced periods of turbulences as the dictatorships Vargas and Militar, to have suffered diverse economic crises, the lack of private capital to alavancar an independent economic growth of the foreign capital and the constant problems of external indebtedness leading to many constaints for which the country passed. Still that the State did not hear the critical ones and invested heavily in the creation of industries that could lead to the development at the same time where it made possible the installation of some industries of foreign capital well. This, together with the private internal capitals and other actions of economic policy, provided to the end of the years 1990 terms a strong and respected economy. But the structural problems as the high inflation, the dependence of the foreign capital and the external debt had been basic factors that had taken to the retardation and the magnitude of our development.