Jose Maurcio

The average one was of 442 slaves embarked in Africa; 10% died during the passage, due to pssimas conditions of hygiene, feeding and maltreatment. A time in the River, the enslaved one was displayed in warehouses in Street of the Valongo, where the market of the slaves functioned. For 1820 return, England decided to abolish its proper traffic for the colonies, being started to pressure the too much countries to make the same. In the package of requirements for the recognition of the Independence of Brazil, one of them was the end of the commerce of slaves. With the official abolition of the slavery in Brazil, in 13 of May of 1888, the right of the blacks of access to the land was also abolished. Thus, they had become doubly kept out of society, for the racial discrimination and the poverty. Although all the suffering of the Brazilian black, since the colony some blacks comes if detaching for the individual talent. In the sort erudite music the priest Jose Maurcio (1767-1830), was Master of the Chapel of If of Rio De Janeiro and received several would honor of D.

Joo. In popular music, in century XVIII, we had first the great singer of modinhas and lundus, the mulato Sundays Caldas Barbosa. In the sculpture and architecture, Antonio Francisco Lisbon (1730-1814), the Aleijadinho, probably bigger black Brazilian artist of the all the times. Been born in Sabar (MG), son of Portuguese and an enslaved black. After the 40 years it deformed it to the leprosy, taking it until the impossibility to work with the hands.

To carry through its art it passed then to tie the instruments of work in the pulses and thus it only sculptured its workmanships. In literature, the writer Teixeira and Sousa (1811-1861), that he only had the primary course, although the color and of the poverty, is identified by the critical one as the first romancista of Brazil. In different times, but for the same idea, diverse artists, exactly not black, they had fought for the black culture in Brazil: Gregorio de Matos (poet), I castrate Alves (called poet of the slaves), Di Cavalcanti in the painting and Villa-Wolf in music. (Obs. Transcribed text of unknown author) cvr/

Benjamin Art

Benjamin in ' ' The work of art in the age of its reprodutibilidade tcnica' ' I distinguished the art between its ' ' value of culto' ' its ' ' value of exposio' '. For such Benjamin analysis it uses the aura concept, that stops it is the absolute singularity of a being. For Benjamin the decline of the aura if must ' ' diffusion and increasing intensity of the movements of the masses modernas' '. For it the work of art has in the authenticity ties to intern between its unit and its durability to it, and the modern masses desire that the things are ' ' more prximas' ' therefore wants ' ' to surpass the only character of all the facts by means of its reprodutibilidade' '. The art was created to become the holy ghost next and imanente, religious origin, giving it aurtica quality. Such quality remained same later that it left of being part of the religion. Its critical ' ' gira' ' around the new modality of if reproducing art, ' ' the reproduction technique, that allows the existence of the artistic object in series and that in certain cases as the photograph, the record and the cinema it becomes impossible to distinguish original and cpia' ' , on the other hand art considered this way them of reproduction a form of that more people have access it. It wanted the democratization of the culture, of form if to use of the medias criticizes to allow it would revolutionize. If the aura ' ' it is the absolute singularity of a being – natural or artistic -, its condition of unit nico' ' if it loses from the moment that the workmanships had obeyed the rules of the capitalist market, being thus, do not possess democratizador character. The capitalism took the work of art if to become merchandise, a distraction and a leisure for lucrative ends, taking the workmanship the loss of the aura.